Speaking at the agency's headquarters in Geneva, Guterres warned of multiple new factors that are causing displacement. He said many of these did not exist at the time of UNHCR's founding or when the major international refugee and statelessness conventions were created.
"UNHCR traditionally was supporting refugees, people that would cross a border because of a conflict or persecution," he said. "But now we see that more and more people are crossing borders because of extreme poverty, because of the impact of climate change, [and] because of their interrelation with conflict. So there are new patterns of forced displacement and the international community needs to be able to tackle those challenges."UNHCR was created on December 14, 1950 by the UN General Assembly. Its original purpose was to address the post-World War II refugee situation in Europe, but its work quickly expanded. By 1956 it was facing its first major international emergency with the outpouring of refugees when Soviet forces crushed the Hungarian Revolution.
In the 1960s, the decolonization of Africa produced the first of that continent's numerous refugee crises needing UNHCR intervention. Over the following two decades, UNHCR had to help with displacement crises in Asia and Latin America. Today it deals with major displacement situations around the world. The global population of refugees, internally displaced people and asylum-seekers stands at 43 million people – most of them under UNHCR's duty of care.
Guterres pointed to major displacement from Somalia and Afghanistan as examples of 21st Century refugee problems that extend across multiple borders and require new and globalized approaches to finding solutions. He also highlighted the phenomenon of statelessness as requiring particular attention.
But on UNHCR's anniversary and its achievements over 60 years – which include twice being awarded the Nobel Peace Prize – Guterres said the focus should be on coming challenges which would equal anything the agency has faced in its past.
"I think it is very important to recognize that the action of UNHCR has represented, for many people, life instead of death, home instead of total deprivation, health instead of a disease that can even represent the risk to die, protection against the most dramatic violations of human rights," he said. "We have many reasons to be proud, but we also have much more reason to be concerned with the challenges we face at the present moment, and recognizing that unfortunately the root causes of conflict and displacement are not being eliminated and the next few years will be as challenging as the past."UNHCR's 60th anniversary year, which begins this week, coincides with several related anniversaries, including the 60th anniversary of the 1951 Convention relating to the Status of Refugees (July 28, 2011), the 50th anniversary of the 1961 Convention on the Reduction of Statelessness (August 30, 2011), and the 150th anniversary of the birth of Fridtjof Nansen, the first League of Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (October 10, 2011).
Over the coming months UNHCR will be using these occasions to push for strengthening of the international legal framework for dealing with the world's statelessness and displaced, including through increased state accessions to the key refugee and statelessness conventions.
Reflecting on this occasion, Neil Grungras, Executive Director of ORAM – Organization for Refuge, Asylum and Migration which works with LGBTI refugees worldwide, said:
We at ORAM are proud and sad at this monumental occasion. Proud because UNHCR celebrates its 60th year with a new-found and outspoken commitment to assist LGBT refugees and asylum seekers through the enormous challenges they face. Sad because LGBT refugees worldwide are in more danger and more need of protection than ever. It is a tragedy of our time that across the world – in Iraq, Uganda, Iran, Jamaica, Zimbabwe and too many other countries, LGBT people continue to be persecuted and forced to flee their homes to seek refuge in other countries, making an agency such as this so vital.
We are immensely grateful for UNHCR’s continued existence too, not least for the hope it brings those who are persecuted for their sexual orientation or gender identity. At a time when oppression and hatred towards lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender people is proliferating, the role of UNHCR is crucial – to offer the chance of a life lived in safety. Today, we urge all countries and communities that value human rights and human dignity to work with UNHCR and with ORAM to offer a safe space and a warm welcome to those who have been forced into exile due to their sexual orientation or gender identity – your help is needed more than ever.